ITAMP WorkshopPhysics and Applications of "Slow" LightOrganizers: Mikhail Lukin, Atac Imamoglu, Lene HauApril 35, 2000 
Home  Back 
Participants 
Abstracts 
Schedule 
Online Talks 
Prof. Ennio Arimondo Prof. Paul R. Berman Prof. Robert W. Boyd Prof. Dmitry Budker Prof. Raymond Y. Chiao Mr. Zachary Dutton Mr. Chris FangYen Prof. Michael S. Feld Dr. Michael Fleischhauer Prof. Alexander L. Gaeta Prof. Philippe Grangier Prof. Lene Hau
Prof. Mark S. Hillery Prof. Atac Imamoglu
Shin Inouye Prof. Wolfgang Ketterle Prof. Mark A Kasevich Prof. Olga A. Kocharovskaya
Prof. Pierre Meystre Prof. Thomas W. Mossberg
Prof. Marlan O. Scully
Prof. Ian A. Walmsley Prof. Yoshihisa Yamamoto
Dr. Suzanne Yelin 
Home  Top  Back 
Group Velocities in Atomic Systems Open or with Momentum RecoilE. Arimondo INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università
di Pisa The dispersive properties of coherent population trapping
in an open threelevel atomic system, i.e. in a system with losses
towards external levels, are investigated. Electromagnetic induced
transparency in an open threelevel system produces very small
group velocities, similar to those obtained in a closed threelevel
system. Furthermore, for cold atom, the momentum recoil associated
to the photon absorption process leads to a kinetic energy mismatch
between the states composing the dark state superposition, and
it is equivalent to a coherence decay mechanism. The role of
this kinetic energy decay mechanism on the propagation of slow
light pulses through a cold atom sample has been 
Home  Top  Back 
Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Cold AtomsP. R. Berman Physics Department Nonlinear spectroscopy has proven to be in invaluable tool for probing atomic and molecular systems. Processes such as lasing without inversion, electromagnetically induced transparency, index enhancement, and slow light find their origin in the nonlinear response of an atomic ensemble to two or more radiation fields. For most applications, the recoil atoms undergo on the absorption or emission of radiation could be neglected in conventional nonlinear spectroscopy. The situation has changed dramatically with the availability of cold atom sources and Bose condensates. It is now possible for atom recoil to modify and lead to new features in pumpprobe spectroscopy of two and threelevel atoms. The simplest manifestation of this effect is the socalled ''recoilinduced resonances.'' The physical processes underlying recoilinduced resonances will be reviewed and a comparison between the recoilinduced resonances and the collective atomic recoil laser will be given. Examples of recoilinduced structure in both steadystate and coherent transient spectroscopy will be explored. Among the topics to be discussed are pumpprobe spectroscopy of a single transition, pumpprobe spectroscopy of threelevel systems, matterwave atom interferometers, Bragg spectroscopy of a single ground state level, and a recoilinduced Faraday effect. 
Home  Top  Back 
EIT and Slow Light in the TwoLevel AtomRobert W. Boyd Institute of Optics We show how EIT concepts, which were initially developed within the context of a multilevel atomic system, can be implemented for the twolevel atom. We find that the presence of a strong control field can modify the linear and nonlinear optical response of the twolevel atom. In particular, we find that the presence of the control field can induce conditions such that the linear absorption vanishes identically but the nonlinear response is large. We also find that the group velocity of light is much smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum under these conditions. In addition, we describe several possible applications of EIT in the twolevel atom, including the generation of squeezed light and the generation of spatial and temporal solitons. 
Home  Top  Back 
New Developments in Nonlinear Optical RotationD. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, and V. V. Yashchuk Department of Physics This talk will dwell on recent work at Berkeley on nonlinear optical rotation in resonant atomic media, including magnetooptical, electrooptical and selfrotation. A previously unrecognized physical mechanism is shown to play a dominant role in magnetooptical rotation at high light powers. 
Home  Top  Back 
Bogoliubov Dispersion Relation for a "Photon Fluid'': Is This a Superfluid?Raymond Y. Chiao Department of Physics We discuss the possibility that photons, which are bosons, can form a 2D superfluid due to BoseEinstein condensation inside a nonlinear FabryPerot cavity filled with atoms in their ground states. A "photon fluid'' forms inside the cavity as a result of multiple photonphoton collisions mediated by the atoms during a cavity ringdown time. The effective mass and chemical potential for a photon inside this fluid are nonvanishing. This implies the existence of a Bogoliubov dispersion relation for the lowlying elementary excitations of the photon fluid, and in particular, that sound waves exist for longwavelength, lowfrequency disturbances of this fluid. Possible experiments to test for the superfluidity of the photon fluid based on the Landau criticalvelocity criterion will be discussed. 
Home  Top  Back 
Nonclassical Behavior of the MicrolaserChris M. Fangyen, Abdulaziz Aljalal, ChungChieh
Yu, Ramachandra R. George R. Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory Fundamental study of the microlaser is important and interesting because it is one of the simplest systems in which experimental results can be rigorously compared with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, it is a quantum mechanical system, which can generate nonclassical light. Several measurements are underway to study the photon statistics inside and outside the cavity, the multiple threshold behavior, and the lineshape of microlaser emission. Interestingly, some quantum mechanical features are predicted to be present even when the number of atoms in the cavity is well beyond one. An overview of the current experimental and theoretical studies will be given. 
Home  Top  Back 
DarkState Polaritons, Quantum Memories for Photons and Entanglement of Atomic EnsemblesMichael Fleischhauer Sektion Physik, LudwigMaximilians Universität
München, Mikhail Lukin ITAMP, HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics, A method for a controlled transfer of quantum states from
light pulses to collective 
Home  Top  Back 
Coherent Control of Optical SolitonsK. D. Moll and Alexander L. Gaeta School of Applied and Engineering Physics We investigate theoretically the use of quantum interference
effects to control the dispersion and nonlinearity of an atomic
system. We find under suitable conditions that it is possible
to produce temporal solitons under conditions that are highly
absorbing in the absence of a 
Home  Top  Back 
Slow Light and the Vacuum Rabi SplittingDaniel J. Gauthier Duke University The vacuum Rabi splitting appears as doublet in the spontaneous
emission spectrum of a twolevel atom enclosed in a single mode
optical cavity in the strong coupling regime. 
Home  Top  Back 
Quantum NonDemolition Measurements and Squeezing in LambdaType Atomic ThreeLevel SystemsPhilippe Grangier and Alice Sinatra Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, We will review QND and quantum noise reduction experiments
based upon the large optical non linearities available in atomic
3level systems [1]. In the weak coupling regime, interesting
effects are obtained when large atomic cooperativities are achieved,
by using lowfinesse cavities, large number of atoms, and moderate
atomlaser detunings [2]. We will discuss possible extensions
of previous schemes to "giant" nonlinearities, [1] J.F. Roch, K. Vigneron, Ph. Grelu, A. Sinatra, J.Ph. Poizat
and [2] A. Sinatra, J.F. Roch, K. Vigneron, Ph. Grelu, J.Ph.
Poizat, K. Wang [3] K. Gheri, W. Alge and Ph. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 60, R2673 (1999) 
Home  Top  Back 
Applications and Prospects for Electromagnetically InducedTransparency in SolidsDr. Philip Hemmer Air Force Research Laboratory Recent experimental and theoretical work has revealed numerous potential applications for electromagnetic induced transparency and other darkresonance techniques. Although it has been possible to perform impressive demonstration experiments in atomic vapors, many applications will ultimately require solidstate implementation. Our initial experiments toward this goal involved the use of a lowtemperature, spectral hole burning material: Pr doped Y2SiO5. The successes and limitations of this material will be reviewed in the context of particular applications that we are pursuing: optical aberration correction, optical memory, and quantum computing. In this same context, the properties of several additional material systems (color centers, phosphors, doped fibers, quantum wells), now under study in our laboratory, will be discussed. The status of the current experiments and some preliminary results will also be presented. 
Home  Top  Back 
Quantum Fields in Nonlinear and Dispersive MediaProf. Mark S. Hillery Department of Physics There are several different ways to approach the quantization of electrodynamics in linear or nonlinear media. If there is no dispersion one can represent the medium by its susceptibilities and apply canonical quantization procedures. If the medium is dispersive, its response to fields is not local in time, and this introduces problems in the quantization. One approach is to construct an approximate theory which is local, and another is to introduce a model for the medium and to quantize the combined mediumfield system. The latter approach is discussed here. Ultimately one would like a scattering theory for fields propagating through media, and it is shown how this can be done for linear, dispersive media. 
Home  Top  Back 
Quantum Optics Using Quantum DotsAtac Imamoglu Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering I will report experimental results demonstrating photon antibunching from a single CdSE quantum dot at room temperature. I will also discuss cavityQED experiments using quantum dots embedded in microdisk structures: these experiments provide evidence for laser action even though the average number of quantum dots inside the cavity mode is unity. 
Home  Top  Back 
Coherent Matter And Electromagnetic Fields:Collective Dynamics Of Rf Atom LasersP. Maddaloni, M. Modugno, C. Fort, F. Minardi, and M. Inguscio INFM  European Laboratory For Non Linear Spectroscopy (L.E.N.S.)  Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita' di Firenze L.go E. Fermi 2,150125 Firenze, Italy One of the most successful results recently achieved in atomic physics is the realization of the so called atom laser. The interaction of a Rf field with a trapped Bose condensate is used to extract a coherent matterwave beam. Although atomic condensates and laser light share many properties, Bosecondensed atoms are distinguished from photons in a laser by their interactions. As a consequence, the mechanism of outcoupling, perturbing the chemical potential, itself induces oscillations in the shape of the atom laser. We report both theoretical and experimental studies concerning these collective effects in different regimes. 
Home  Top  Back 
Home  Top  Back 
Home  Top  Back 
Dressed BoseEinstein CondensatesPierre Meystre Optical Sciences Center HighQ multimode optical resonators can be used to generate dressed BoseEinstein condensates, which are effective multicomponent condensates. We first discuss the generation and stability of these systems, and then combine them with ideas of "darkstate physics" to generate a full quantum entanglement between two matter waves and two optical waves. This offers a potential way to influence the behavior of a macroscopic quantum system via a microscopic "knob." 
Home  Top  Back 
Group Velocity Effects in Linear Optical Systems and Maximal LightMatter CouplingThomas W. Mossberg Department of Physics and Oregon Center for
Optics Propagation of light through various optical devices, fiber gratings, fabryperots, etc. will be analyzed in the context of slow light as will maximal atomphoton coupling obtainable with focused traveling wave optical beams in the absence of extreme group velocity effects. 
Home  Top  Back 
Entangling and Teleporting Atomic WavepacketsScott Parkins The University of Auckland We outline schemes for entangling and teleporting atomic centerofmass wave functions between distant locations. The schemes use interactions in cavity quantum electrodynamics to facilitate a coupling between the motion of an atom trapped inside a cavity and external propagating light fields. This enables the distribution of quantum entanglement and facilitates motional Bellstate analysis. 
Home  Top  Back 
Home  Top  Back 
Slow Light Pulse Propagation in Periodic Dielectric WaveguidesR.E.Slusher
Light pulses propagate at low velocities through periodic dielectric waveguides and dielectric waveguide resonator arrays in both the linear and nonlinear pulse intensity regimes. Experiments in fiber Bragg gratings demonstrate some of the interesting phenomena including Bragg solitons, vector solitons, polarization instabilities, and propagation in chirped gratings. Numerical simulations using the nonlinear coupled mode equations as well as coupled nonlinear Schröedinger equations are used to compare with the experimental results and to design new dielectric structures that exhibit a wide range of interesting phenomena. Experiments are also being designed for waveguide resonators. 
Home  Top  Back 
Quantum Communication Using CavityQEDS.J. van Enk (1), H.J. Kimble (1), H. Mabuchi
(1), J.I. Cirac (2), P. (1) Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics (2) University of Innsbruck Quantum mechanics promises to provide, under appropriate conditions, secure communication, more efficient communication and faster computation. Here we present a physical setup that combines quantum memories (atoms) with quantum communication (photons): atoms trapped in optical cavities. 
Home  Top  Back 
Creation of Fock States in the MicromaserB.T.H. Varcoe, S. Brattke, and H. WaltherMaxPlanckInstitute for Quantum Optics
and The oneatom maser or micromaser allows one to study the resonant interaction of a single atom with a single mode of a superconducting niobium cavity. In our experiments we achieve values of the quality factor of up to 4x1010, corresponding to an average lifetime of a photon in the cavity of 0.3 s. The photon lifetime is thus much longer than the interaction time of an atom with the maser field. The atoms used in the experiments are rubidium Rydberg atoms pumped by laser excitation into the upper maser level, 63 P3/2, the lower maser level is either the 61 D5/2 or the 61 D3/2 depending on the cavity frequency. The atom field dynamics is observed by measuring the atoms in the upper or lower maser levels after the cavity. During the interaction the field in the cavity consists only of single or a few photons, nevertheless, it is possible to study the interaction in detail. Thus, the dynamics of the interaction described by the JaynesCummings model can be controlled by changing the velocity i.e. the interaction time of the atoms. The atom rate is such that on average there is much less than a single atom in the cavity at one time. During the interaction with the cavity the atom and field become entangled, therefore the detection of the state of an outgoing atom gives information on the field states of the cavity. The quantum mechanical treatment of the radiation field uses the number of photons in a particular mode, known as a number state or Fock state, to characterise the quantum states. Fock states therefore represent the most basic quantum states and are maximally distant from what one would call a classical field. Additionally and unlike the classical field, the quantum field has a ground state which is represented by a vacuum state consisting of field fluctuations with no residual energy. Experimentally Fock states are very fragile and very difficult to realise, hence so far they have not been produced experimentally under steady state conditions. To observe a Fock state, the mode considered must have minimal losses and the thermal field, always present at finite temperatures giving rise to photon number fluctuations, has to be eliminated. In this paper we are going to report on the first generation of Fock states using the micromaser. In order to produce the field, a flux of excited state atoms is passed through the cavity. The Fock states were realised in two ways: firstly in the steady state by using the trapping condition of the maser field[1] and secondly using state reduction of the pumping atoms. In the second experiment the purity of the Fock state could be investigated in detail by sending an additional probe atom into the cavity and investigating the dynamics of the photon exchange[2]. M. Weidinger, B. T. H. Varcoe, R. Heerlein, and H. Walther:
"Trapping states in the micromaser." Phys. Rev. Lett.
82 3795 (1999). 
Home  Top  Back 
Engineering Entanglement in Ultrafast Parametric Downconversion.R. Erdmann, A. U'Ren, K. Banaszek,* I. A. Walmsley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 * Also with: Rochester Theory Center for Optical Science and Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 We report an experimental confirmation of an interferometric technique for entangling two photons in the spacefrequency component of the state vector by coherently adding the contributions from two passes through a downconversion crystal. The resulting symmetrized state vector also contains very little distinguishing information that could cause the failure of a Bellstate measurement. Advances in the characterization of entanglement through Schmidt decomposition, in which the twophoton state vector is expressed as a discretized sum over the socalled Schmidt modes, are presented with particular emphasis on the quantification of entanglement through a suitably defined entropy. We discuss an experiment in which a KTP quasiphasematched (QPM) waveguide is used as a source of pairs of photons (replacing the downconversion crystal) with a resulting improved control of the spatial characteristics of the modes, as well as the possibility for engineering particular entangled states. 
Home  Top  Back 
Quantum Solitons Effects Using EIT

Home  Top  Back 
Monday, April 3: Phillips Auditorium 
9:00 a.m. Coffee; pick up workshop packets and nametags9:25 a.m. Welcome; opening comments, Kate KirbySession I: 'Slow' Light and Nonlinear Optics with EIT9:35 a.m. Z. Dutton/L. Hau: TBA10:10 a.m. Coffee break10:40 a.m. E. Arimondo: Group Velocities in Atomic Systems Open or with Momentum Recoil

Home  Top  Back 
Tursday, April 4: PhillipsAuditorium 
Session III: Optical Coherence in Solid State Media9:00 a.m. R. Slusher: Slow Light Pulse Propagation in Periodic Dielectric Waveguides9:35 a.m. A. Imamoglu: Quantum Optics Using Quantum Dots

Home  Top  Back 
Wednesday, April 6: Phillips Auditorium 
Session V: Dark States in Cavity QED and Cold Atoms9:00 a.m. D. Gauthier: Slow Light and the Vacuum Rabi Splitting9:35 a.m. Ch.FangYen/ M.Feld: Nonclassical Behavior of the Microlaser10:10 a.m. Coffee10:40 a.m. B. Varcoe: Creation of Fock States in the Micromaser11:15 a.m. I. Walmsley: Engineering Entanglement in Ultrafast Parametric Downconversion11:50 a.m. M. Inguscio: Coherent Matter And Electromagnetic Fields: Collective Dynamics Of Rf Atom Lasers12:25 p.m. Lunch2:00 p.m. M. Kasevich: TBA2:35 p.m. P. Meystre: Dressed BoseEinstein Condensates3:10 p.m. Refreshment break3:30 p.m. S. Parkins: Entangling and Teleporting Atomic Wavepackets

Home  Top  Back 