MIRSI: A Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager

MIRSI (Mid-InfraRed Spectrometer and Imager) is a mid-infrared camera system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The MIRSI team developed the instrument at Boston University, with funding from the NSF and Boston University. MIRSI is currently available for use as a visiting instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. Interested parties may contact Joseph Hora (jhora@cfa.harvard.edu) for help in preparing proposals, but you can submit your proposal directly to the IRTF without contacting the MIRSI team if you wish.

The MIRSI Team is:

PI: L.K. Deutsch (deceased), James Jackson ( CfA/BU IAR )
Co-PI: J. Hora ( Harvard-Smithsonian CfA )
Team: J. Adams (Cornell )
Team: M. Kassis (Keck Telescope)

Current Instrument Status (March 2013): MIRSI will not be available at the IRTF until further notice

MIRSI has had an electronics issue and will not be available until the problem is resolved. Contact the IRTF for updates on the instrument status.

Instrument Information

Data Reduction Scripts

Sample Results

MIRSI sees first light!
MIRSI's first run at the IRTF Oct. 30 - Nov. 8, 2002

Introduction to MIRSI science


The graph below shows the number of nights per semester that MIRSI has been been scheduled to be used on the IRTF, either alone or sharing with another instrument.

Publications based on MIRSI data

Instrument papers

When writing papers based on MIRSI data, please cite the following instrument papers:

"MIRSI, A Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager: Performance Results from the IRTF", Kassis, Marc, Adams, Joseph D., Hora, Joseph L., Deutsch, Lynne K., Tollestrup, Eric V. 2008, PASP, 120, 127

"MIRSI: A Mid-infrared Spectrometer and Imager", L. Deutsch, J. Hora, J. Adams, & M. Kassis 2002, in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, SPIE 4841, 106 (PS version)

Publications based on MIRSI observations

The list below is not complete, but is a sample of the research performed using MIRSI data acquired at the IRTF.

"(25143) Itokawa: The Power of Radiometric Techniques for the Interpretation of Remote Thermal Observations in the Light of the Hayabusa Rendezvous Results", Müller, T. G., Hasegawa, S., and Usui, F. 2014, arXiv, arXiv:1404.5842

"A Tight Connection between Gamma-Ray Outbursts and Parsec-scale Jet Activity in the Quasar 3C 454.3", Jorstad, S. G., Marscher, A. P., Smith, P. S., Larionov, V. M., Agudo, I., Gurwell, M., Wehrle, A. E., Lähteenmäki, A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Schmidt, G. D., Arkharov, A. A., Blinov, D. A., Blumenthal, K., Casadio, C., Chigladze, R. A., Efimova, N. V., Eggen, J. R., Gómez, J. L., Grupe, D., Hagen-Thorn, V. A., Joshi, M., Kimeridze, G. N., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Sigua, L. A., MacDonald, N. R., Maune, J. D., McHardy, I. M., Miller, H. R., Molina, S. N., Morozova, D. A., Scott, T., Taylor, B. W., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., Thum, C., Walker, G., Williamson, K. E., Sallum, S., Consiglio, S., and Strelnitski, V. 2013, ApJ, 773, 147

"Spatial distribution of water in the stratosphere of Jupiter from Herschel HIFI and PACS observations", Cavalié, T., Feuchtgruber, H., Lellouch, E., de Val-Borro, M., Jarchow, C., Moreno, R., Hartogh, P., Orton, G., Greathouse, T. K., Billebaud, F., Dobrijevic, M., Lara, L. M., González, A., and Sagawa, H. 2013, A&A, 553, A21

"The origin and evolution of Saturn's 2011-2012 stratospheric vortex", Fletcher, L. N., Hesman, B. E., Achterberg, R. K., Irwin, P. G. J., Bjoraker, G., Gorius, N., Hurley, J., Sinclair, J., Orton, G. S., Legarreta, J., García-Melendo, E., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Read, P. L., Simon-Miller, A. A., and Flasar, F. M. 2012, Icar, 221, 560

"Multiwavelength Variations of 3C 454.3 during the 2010 November to 2011 January Outburst", Wehrle, A. E., Marscher, A. P., Jorstad, S. G., Gurwell, M. A., Joshi, M., MacDonald, N. R., Williamson, K. E., Agudo, I., and Grupe, D. 2012, ApJ, 758, 72

"Spectral classification of the brightest objects in the galactic star forming region W40", Shuping, R. Y., Vacca, W. D., Kassis, M., and Yu, K. C. 2012, arXiv, arXiv:1208.4648

"Multiwavelength Variations of 3C 454.3 during the November 2010 to January 2011 Outburst", Wehrle, A. E., Marscher, A. P., Jorstad, S. G., Gurwell, M. A., Joshi, M., MacDonald, N. R., Williamson, K. E., Agudo, I., and Grupe, D. 2012, arXiv, arXiv:1208.4564

"H II Regions, Embedded Protostars, and Starless Cores in Sharpless 2-157", Chen, C.-C., Williams, J. P., and Pandian, J. D. 2012, ApJ, 752, 102

"Physical Characterization and Origin of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3", Walsh, K. J., Delbo', M., Mueller, M., Binzel, R. P., and DeMeo, F. E. 2012, ApJ, 748, 104

"Infrared Studies of Epsilon Aurigae in Eclipse", Stencel, R. E., Kloppenborg, B. K., Wall, R. E., Jr., Hopkins, J. L., Howell, S. B., Hoard, D. W., Rayner, John, Bus, Schelte, Tokunaga, Alan, Sitko, Michael L., Bradford, Suellen, Russell, Ray W., Lynch, David K., Hammel, Heidi, Whitney, Barbara, Orton, Glenn, Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma, Hora, Joseph L., Hinz, Philip, Hoffmann, William, Skemer, Andrew 2011, AJ, 142, 174

"Mid-infrared lightcurve of Vesta", Chamberlain, M. A.,Sykes, M. V.,Tedesco, E. F. 2011 Icarus, Volume 215, Issue 1, p. 57-61.

"EPOXI: Comet 103P/Hartley 2 Observations from a Worldwide Campaign", Meech, K. J., A'Hearn, M. F., Adams, J. A., Bacci, P., Bai, J., Barrera, L., Battelino, M., Bauer, J. M., Becklin, E., Bhatt, B., Biver, N., Bockelée-Morvan, D., Bodewits, D., Böhnhardt, H., Boissier, J., Bonev, B. P., Borghini, W., Brucato, J. R., Bryssinck, E., Buie, M. W., Canovas, H., Castellano, D., Charnley, S. B., Chen, W. P., Chiang, P., Choi, Y.-J., Christian, D. J., Chuang, Y.-L., Cochran, A. L., Colom, P., Combi, M. R., Coulson, I. M., Crovisier, J., Dello Russo, N., Dennerl, K., DeWahl, K., DiSanti, M. A., Facchini, M., Farnham, T. L., Fernández, Y., Florén, H. G., Frisk, U., Fujiyoshi, T., Furusho, R., Fuse, T., Galli, G., García-Hernández, D. A., Gersch, A., Getu, Z., Gibb, E. L., Gillon, M., Guido, E., Guillermo, R. A., Hadamcik, E., Hainaut, O., Hammel, H. B., Harker, D. E., Harmon, J. K., Harris, W. M., Hartogh, P., Hashimoto, M., Häusler, B., Herter, T., Hjalmarson, A., Holland, S. T., Honda, M., Hosseini, S., Howell, E. S., Howes, N., Hsieh, H. H., Hsiao, H.-Y., Hutsemékers, D., Immler, S. M., Jackson, W. M., Jeffers, S. V., Jehin, E., Jones, T. J., Ovelar, M. de Juan, Kaluna, H. M., Karlsson, T., Kawakita, H., Keane, J. V., Keller, L. D., Kelley, M. S., Kinoshita, D., Kiselev, N. N., Kleyna, J., Knight, M. M., Kobayashi, H., Kobulnicky, H. A., Kolokolova, L., Kreiny, M., Kuan, Y.-J., Küppers, M., Lacruz, J. M., Landsman, W. B., Lara, L. M., Lecacheux, A., Levasseur-Regourd, A. C., Li, B., Licandro, J., Ligustri, R., Lin, Z.-Y., Lippi, M., Lis, D. C., Lisse, C. M., Lovell, A. J., Lowry, S. C., Lu, H., Lundin, S., Magee-Sauer, K., Magain, P., Manfroid, J., Mazzotta Epifani, E., McKay, A., Melita, M. D., Mikuz, H., Milam, S. N., Milani, G., Min, M., Moreno, R., Mueller, B. E. A., Mumma, M. J., Nicolini, M., Nolan, M. C., Nordh, H. L., Nowajewski, P. B., Odin Team, Ootsubo, T., Paganini, L., Perrella, C., Pittichová, J., Prosperi, E., Radeva, Y. L., Reach, W. T., Remijan, A. J., Rengel, M., Riesen, T. E., Rodenhuis, M., Rodríguez, D. P., Russell, R. W., Sahu, D. K., Samarasinha, N. H., Sánchez Caso, A., Sandqvist, A., Sarid, G., Sato, M., Schleicher, D. G., Schwieterman, E. W., Sen, A. K., Shenoy, D., Shi, J.-C., Shinnaka, Y., Skvarc, J., Snodgrass, C., Sitko, M. L., Sonnett, S., Sosseini, S., Sostero, G., Sugita, S., Swinyard, B. M., Szutowicz, S., Takato, N., Tanga, P., Taylor, P. A., Tozzi, G.-P., Trabatti, R., Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Tubiana, C., de Val-Borro, M., Vacca, W., Vandenbussche, B., Vaubaillion, J., Velichko, F. P., Velichko, S. F., Vervack, R. J., Jr., Vidal-Nunez, M. J., Villanueva, G. L., Vinante, C., Vincent, J.-B., Wang, M., Wasserman, L. H., Watanabe, J., Weaver, H. A., Weissman, P. R., Wolk, S., Wooden, D. H., Woodward, C. E., Yamaguchi, M., Yamashita, T., Yanamandra-Fischer, P. A., Yang, B., Yao, J.-S., Yeomans, D. K., Zenn, T., Zhao, H., Ziffer, J. E. 2011, ApJL, 734, L1

"The atmospheric influence, size and possible asteroidal nature of the July 2009 Jupiter impactor", Orton, G. S., Fletcher, L. N., Lisse, C. M., Chodas, P. W., Cheng, A., Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A., Baines, K. H., Fisher, B. M., Wesley, A., Perez-Hoyos, S., de Pater, I., Hammel, H. B., Edwards, M. L., Ingersoll, A. P., Mousis, O., Marchis, F., Golisch, W., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Simon-Miller, A. A., Hueso, R., Momary, T. W., Greene, Z., Reshetnikov, N., Otto, E., Villar, G., Lai, S., Wong, M. H. 2011, Icarus, 211, 587

"A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids II. Summary and synthesis", Shepard, Michael K., Clark, Beth Ellen, Ockert-Bell, Maureen, Nolan, Michael C., Howell, Ellen S., Magri, Christopher, Giorgini, Jon D., Benner, Lance A. M., Ostro, Steven J., Harris, Alan W., Warner, Brian D., Stephens, Robert D., Mueller, Michael 2010, Icarus, 208, 221

"Thermal structure and composition of Jupiters Great Red Spot from high-resolution thermal imaging", Fletcher, Leigh N., Orton, G. S., Mousis, O., Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Parrish, P. D., Irwin, P. G. J., Fisher, B. M., Vanzi, L., Fujiyoshi, T., Fuse, T., Simon-Miller, A. A., Edkins, E., Hayward, T. L., De Buizer, J. 2010, Icarus, 208, 306

"Mid-infrared spectral variability for compositionally similar asteroids: Implications for asteroid particle size distributions", Vernazza, P., Carry, B., Emery, J., Hora, J. L., Cruikshank, D., Binzel, R. P., Jackson, J., Helbert, J., Maturilli, A. 2010, Icarus, 207, 800

"NIR And MIR Emission From The Central High-mass Protostar In IRAS19410", Campbell, Murray F., Sridharan, T. K., De Buizer, J. M., Kassis, M., Whitney, B., Hora, J. L., Beuther, H., Eshelman, E., Moriarty, J. C., Towner, A. P., Saito, M. 2010, AAS, #215, #414.36, 41, 260

"Characterizing the Brightest Members of the W40 Infrared Cluster", Shuping, Ralph, Vacca, W., Kassis, M., Yu, K. 2010, AAS, #215, 414.13, 41, 256

"IRTF Mid-Ir Imaging of Comet 9P-TEMPEL 1 V1.0", Bus, S. J., Volquardsen, E. L. 2010, PDSS, 8007

"Thermal Evolution and Composition of the July 2009 Jupiter Impact Site from 7-25 Micron Imaging and Spectroscopy", Fletcher, L. N., Orton, G. S., Mousis, O., de Pater, I., Hammel, H. B., Golisch, W., Edwards, M., Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A., Fisher, B., Greene, Z., Lai, S., Otto, E., Reshetnikov, N., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Simon-Miller, A. A., Hueso, R., Perez-Hoyos, S. 2009, AGU, #P14D-03

"First Observations of the 2009 Collision in Jupiter's Atmosphere", Orton, Glenn S., Fletcher, L., Wesley, A., Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Fisher, B., Mousis, O., Golisch, W., de Pater, I., Marchis, F., Kalas, P., Fitzgerald, M., Graham, J., Wong, M., Rogers, J., Momary, T., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Hammel, H., Simon-Miller, A. 2009, DPS, 41, 10.01

"Diverse Protostellar Evolutionary States in the Young Cluster AFGL961", Williams, Jonathan P., Mann, Rita K., Beaumont, Christopher N., Swift, Jonathan J., Adams, Joseph D., Hora, Joe, Kassis, Marc, Lada, Elizabeth A., Román-Zúntilde;iga, Carlos G. 2009, ApJ, 699, 1300

"Spectral emissivity measurements of Mercury's surface indicate Mg- and Ca-rich mineralogy, K-spar, Na-rich plagioclase, rutile, with possible perovskite, and garnet", Sprague, A. L., Donaldson Hanna, K. L., Kozlowski, R. W. H., Helbert, J., Maturilli, A., Warell, J. B., Hora, J. L. 2009, P&SS, 57, 364

"Retrievals of atmospheric variables on the gas giants from ground-based mid-infrared imaging", Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Fisher, B. M.; Parrish, P. D.; Irwin, P. G. J. 2009, Icarus, 200, 54

"Comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin)", Harker, D. E., Woodward, C. E. 2009, IAU Circ., 9023, 2

"Correlative Analysis of the Interaction of a Large Red Oval with the Great Red Spot and Oval BA in May - August 2008: Local Meteorology", Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A., Orton, G. S., Fletcher, L. N., Simon-Miller, A. 2008, Am. Geo. U., 0343, 1060

"Semi-annual oscillations in Saturns low-latitude stratospheric temperatures", G. S. Orton, P. A. Yanamandra-Fisher, B. M. Fisher, A. J. Friedson, P. D. Parrish, J. F. Nelson, A. Swenson Bauermeister, L. Fletcher, D. Y. Gezari, F. Varosi, A. T. Tokunaga, J. Caldwell, K. H. Baines, J. L. Hora, M. E. Ressler, T. Fujiyoshi, T. Fuse, H. Hagopian, T. Z. Martin, J. T. Bergstralh, C. Howett, W. F. Hoffmann, L. K. Deutsch, J. E. Van Cleve, E. Noe, J. D. Adams, M. Kassis & E. Tollestrup, 2008, Nature, 453, 196

"Depth of a strong jovian jet from a planetary-scale disturbance driven by storms", Sánchez-Lavega, A., Orton, G. S., Hueso, R., García-Melendo, E., Pérez-Hoyos, S., Simon-Miller, A., Rojas, J. F., Gómez, J. M., Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Fletcher, L., Joels, J., Kemerer, J., Hora, J., Karkoschka, E., de Pater, I., Wong, M. H., Marcus, P. S., Pinilla-Alonso, N., Carvalho, F., Go, C., Parker, D., Salway, M., Valimberti, M., Wesley, A., Pujic, Z. 2008, Nature, 451, 437

"Mid-Infrared Photometry and Spectra of Three High Mass Protostellar Candidates at IRAS 18151-1208 and IRAS 20343+4129", M. F. Campbell, T. K. Sridharan, H. Beuther, J. H. Lacy, J. L. Hora, Q. Zhu, M. Kassis, M. Saito, J. M. De Buizer, S. H. Fung, and L. C. Johnson 2008, ApJ, 673, 954

"Mercury'S Dark Plains West Of Caloris Basin--high Ca Clinopyroxene, Na-rich Plagioclase, Mg-rich Olivine, Tio2: Caloris Basin--k-spar, High Ca Clinopyroxene, Tio2, Na-rich Plagioclase, Hornblende And Mg- And Ca-rich Garnets", Sprague, Ann L., Donaldson Hanna, K. L., Kozlowski, R. W. H., Helbert, J., Maturilli, A. 2008, DPS #51.03, 40, 490

"Observations of the Interaction of a Large Red Oval with the Great Red Spot and Oval BA in May-Aug 2008: Thermal Emission Properties", Orton, Glenn S., Fletcher, L. N., Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A., Mousis, O., Van den Anck, M., Edkins, E., Line, M., Fujiyoshi, T., Fuse, T., Rogers, J., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Simon-Miller, A., Chanover, N. 2008, DPS #50.02, 40, 487

"The Continuing Evolution of the Interaction of a Large Red Oval with the Great Red Spot and Oval BA in May - August 2008: Near-Infrared Properties", Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A., Orton, G. S., Fletcher, L. N., Tanga, P., Cecconi, M., Adamoli, G., Irwin, P., Holt, D., Grimes, H., Edkins, E., Brookhart, M., Adamson, A. 2008, DPS #41.03, 40, 469

"Polar Lightning and Decadal-Scale Cloud Variability on Jupiter", Baines, K. H., Simon-Miller, A. A., Orton, G. S., Weaver, H. A., Lunsford, A., Momary, T. W., Spencer, J., Cheng, A. F., Reuter, D. C., Jennings, D. E., Gladstone, G. R., Moore, J., Stern, S. A., Young, L. A., Throop, H., Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Fisher, B. M., Hora, J., Ressler, M. E. 2007, Science, 318, 226

"Mercury'S Radar Bright Region C: Mg-rich Orthopyroxene And Olivine, K-spar, Iron-free Tio2, Ca- And Mg-garnet Indicate Possible Deep Crust Or Mantle Rock Exposures", Kozlowski, Richard W., Donaldson Hanna, K. L., Sprague, A. L., Helbert, J., Maturilli, A. 2008, DPS #39.02, 40, 466

"The 2007 Jupiter's North Temperate Belt Disturbance: I. Overview and jet stream changes", Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin, Orton, G. S., Hueso, R., Garcia-Melendo, E., Perez-Hoyos, S., Simon-Miller, A., Rojas, J. F., Gomez, J. M., Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A., Fletcher, L., Joels, J., Kemerer, J., Hora, J., Karkoschka, E., de Pater, I., Wong, M. H., Marcus, P. S., Pinilla, N. 2007, AAS-DPS, 39, #1.04

"Mid-IR Spectral Survey of High Mass Protostellar Objects", M. F. Campbell, T. K. Sridharan, J. L. Hora, M. Kassis, H. Beuther, R. T. Brooks, S. Fung, L. C. Johnson, J. M. De Buizer, AAS, 2006, 209, 057.02

"The Size and Albedo of Rosetta Fly-By Target 21 Lutetia from New IRTF Measurements and Thermal Modeling", M. Mueller, A.W. Harris, S.J. Bus, J. L. Hora, M. Kassis, J. D. Adams, 2006, A&A, 447, 1153

"Mid-Infrared Emission at Photodissociation Regions in the Orion Nebula", Kassis, M., Adams, J. D., Campbell, M. F., Deutsch, L. K., Hora, J. L., Jackson, J. M., & Tollestrup, E. V. 2006, ApJ, 637, 823

"Thermal Dust Emission from Proplyds, Unresolved Disks, and Shocks in the Orion Nebula", N. Smith, J. Bally, R. Y. Shuping, M. Morris, M. Kassis 2005, AJ, 130, 1763-1777

"Mid-Infrared Emission from the High Mass Protostar IRAS 18089-1732", M.F. Campbell, T.K. Sridharan, J.L. Hora, M. Kassis, L.C. Johnson, S.H. Fung, H. Beuther, J.D. Adams 2005, AAS, 185.05

"Compact Mid-IR Emission from High-Mass Protostellar Candidates", M. F. Campbell, T. K. Sridharan, H. Beuther, J. Hora, M. Kassis, J. D. Adams, S. H. Fung, 2005, IAU Symp. #227

"Surface Characteristics of Comet-Asteroid Transition Objects 944 Hidalgo and 162P/Siding Spring (2004 TU12)",Campins, H., Licandro, J., Ziffer, J.,Fernandez, Y. R., Hora, J., Kassis, M., Pinilla-Alonso, N., 2005, DPS, 37.1602

"Albedo Distributions of Near-Earth and Intermediate Source Region Asteroids", Tedesco, E. F., Bottke, W. F., Bus, S. J., Volquardsen, E., Cellino, A., Delbo, M., Davis, D. R., Morbidelli, A., Hora, J. L., Adams, J. D., Kassis, M., 2005, DPS, 37.1524

"Observations of Members of Very Young Asteroid Families", Chapman, C. R., Merline, W. J., Nesvorny, D., Tamblyn, P. M., Young, E. F., 2005, DPS, 37.1505

"Long-term Temporal Studies of the Coma Grain Size Distribution and Silicate Mineralogy of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Pre- and Post-Impact", Wooden, D. H., Harker, D. E., Woodward, C. E., Kelley, M. S., Fernandez, Y. R., Kassis, M., Ehrenfreund, P., Pel, J.-W., Verhoeff, A., Lisse, C. M., Dello Russo, N., Tokunaga, A. T., 2005, DPS, 37.4318

"The Dust Mineralogy of Two Long-Period Comets: C/2001 Q4 (Neat) and C/2002 T7 (Linear)", Harker, D. E., Woodward, C. E., Wooden, D. H., Kelley, M. S., 2004, AAS, 205.5612

"Saturn's Atmosphere: An Infrared Assessment Using Cassini CIRS and Earth-Based Observations", Orton, G., Fisher, B., Yanamandra-Fisher, P., Ressler, M., Campbell, R., Kassis, M., Hora, J., Deutsch, L., Achterberg, R., Conrath, B., Swenson, A., Katz, J., Winfield, A. 2004, AAS-DPS, 36, 30.07

"The Nucleus of Comet 2P/Encke as Observed in the Fall 2003 Apparition", Fernandez, Y. R., Lisse, C. M., Schleicher, D. G., Bus, S. J., Kassis, M., Hora, J. L., Deutsch, L. K. 2004, AAS-DPS, 36, 21.04

"Compact Mid-IR Emission from High-Mass Protostellar Candidates", Campbell, M. F., Sridharan, T. K., Kassis, M., Hora, J. L., Deutsch, L. K., Beuther, H. 2003, AAS, 203, 94.14

"Compact Mid-IR Emission from High-Mass Protostellar Candidates", Campbell, M. F., Kassis, M., Adams, J. D., Hora, J. L., Deutsch, L. K., 2003 AAS, 202, 2805

"Mid-Infrared Observations of the Orion Bar with MIRSI", M. Kassis, L. Deutsch, E. Bakes, J. Hora, J. Adams, & M. Campbell, 2002, BAAS, 201 (PS version)

"First Light for MIRSI", L. Deutsch, J. Hora, M. Kassis, & J. Adams 2001, BAAS, 199, 102.10 (PS version)

Related Links

MIRAC: A Mid-Infrared Array Camera
BU Institute for Astrophysical Research

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 9876656.

Last modified: Friday, 23-May-2014 10:15:19 EDT