Peer-reviewed Publications

2014    2013    2012    2011    2010    2009    2008    2007    2006    2005    2004    2003    2001   Thesis

 

2014

 

69. Wang., H., X. Liu, K. Chance, G. Gonzalez Abad, Water Vapor Retrieval from OMI Visible Spectra, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 7, 541-567, doi:10.5194/amtd-7-541-2014, 2014.

 

68. Gonzalez Abad, G., X. Liu, K. Chance, H. Wang, R. Suleiman, Updated SAO OMI Formaldehyde Retrieval, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 7, 1-31, doi:10.5194/amtd-7-1-2014, 2014.

 

67. Hache, E., J.-L Attie, C. Tourneur, P. Ricaud, L. Coret, W.A. Lahoz, L. El Amraoui, B. Josse, P. Hamer, J. Warner, X. Liu, K. Chance, M. Höpfner, R. Spurr, V. Natraj, S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, and J. Orphal, The added value of a geostationary thermal infrared and visible instrument to monitor ozone for air quality, accepted for Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 2014.

 

2013

 

66. Wang, J., X. Xu, S. Ding, R.J.D. Spurr, X. Liu, K. Chance, A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from geostationary satellite constellation, submitted to J. Quant. Spectro. & Radiat. Transfer, 2013.

 

65. Foret, G., M. Eremenko, J. Cuesta, P. Sellitto, J. Barre, B.  Gaubert, A. Coman, G. Dufour, X. Liu, M. Joly, M. Beekmann, Ozone pollution: What can we see from space? A case study, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 2013.

 

64. Bak, J., X. Liu, J. H. Kim, K. Chance, and D. P. Haffner, Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms with Brewer Measurements, submitted to Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2013.

 

63. Flynn, C, K.E. Pickering, J.H. Crawford, L. Lamsal, N. Krotkov, J. Herman, A. Weinheimer, G. Chen, X. Liu, J. Szykman, S.-C. Tsay, C. P. Loughner, J. Hains, P. Lee, R.R. Dickerson, J.W. Stehr, L. Brent, The Relationship between Column-density and Surface Mixing Ratio: Statistical Analysis of O3 and NO2 Data from the July 2011 Maryland DISCOVER-AQ Mission, submitted to Atmos. Environ., 2013.

 

62. Zoogman, P., Jacob, D.J., Chance, K., Liu, X., Fiore, A., Lin, M., Travis, K., Monitoring high-ozone events in the US Intermountain West using TEMPO geostationary satellite observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 33463-33490, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-33463-2013, 2013.

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61. Ziemke, J. R., M. A. Olsen, J. C. Witte, A. R. Douglass, S. E. Strahan, K. Wargan, X. Liu, M. R. Schoeberl, K Yang, T. B. Kaplan, S. Pawson, B. N. Duncan, P. A. Newman, P.K. Bhartia, M. K. Heney, Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI/MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 2013.

  

60. Fioletov., V.E., C.A. McLinden, N. Krotkov, K. Yang, D.G. Loyola, P. Valks, N. Theys, M. Van Roozaendael, C. Nowlan, K. Chance, X. Liu, C. Lee, R.V. Martin, Evaluation of the information in OMI, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 satellite SO2 retrievals to detect large emission sources, J. Geophys. Res., accepted, 2013.

 

59. Kuang, S., M.J. Newchurch, J. Burris, X. Liu, Ground-based Lidar for Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements, Applied Optics, 52(15), 3557-3566,  doi:10.1364/ AO.52.003557, 2013.

 

58. Liu., C., X. Liu, K. Chance, The Impact of Using Different Ozone Cross Sections on Ozone Profile Retrievals from OMI UV Measurements, JQSRT, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.006,  2013. [Full text (pdf)]

 

57. Liu, G., J.J. Liu, D.W. Tarasick, V.E. Fioletov, J.J. Jin, O. Moeni, X. Liu, and C.E. Sioris, A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 11473-11507, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-11473-2013, 2013. [ACP]

 

56. Kim, P.S., D.J. Jacob, X. Liu, J.X. Warner, K. Yang, and K. Chance, Global Ozone-CO Correlations from OMI and AIRS: Constraints on Tropospheric Ozone Sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., in press, 2013. [ACP]

 

55. Bak, J., X. Liu, J. C. Wei, L. L. Pan, K. Chance, and J. H. Kim, Improvement of OMI ozone profile retrievals in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by the use of a tropopause-based ozone profile climatology, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2239-2254, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2239-2013, 2013. [Full text (pdf)] [AMT]

 

54. Cuesta, J., M. Eremenko, X. Liu, G. Dufour, Z. Cai, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, P. Sellitto, G. Foret, B. Gaubert, M. Beekmann, J. Orphal, K. Chance, R. Spurr, and J.-M. Flaud, Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., in press, 2013. [ACP]

 

53. Huang, J., C. Zhou, X. Lee1, Y. Bao, X. Zhao, J. Fung, A. Richter, and X. Liu, Impact of anthropogenic emissions on seasonal changes in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone over East China, Atmos. Env., 77, 558-567, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.030 2013.

 

52. Bak, J., J. H. Kim, X. Liu, K. Chance, and J. Kim, Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 239-249, doi:10.5194/amt-6-239-2013, 2013.[AMT]

 

51. Fu, D., J.R. Worden, X. Liu., S. S. Kulawik, K. W. Bowman, and V. Natraj, Characterization of ozone profiles derived from Aura TES and OMI Radiances, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3445-3462, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3445-2013, 2013.  [ACP]

 

50. Wang, L., MJ. Newchurch, A. Pour-Biazar, M. Khan, X. Liu, W. Koshak, and K. Chance, Estimating the Influence of Lightning on Upper Tropospheric Ozone Using NLDN Lightning Data and CMAQ model, Atmos. Envrion, 67, 219-228, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.001, 2013.

 

49.  Liu, C., Y. Liu., X. Liu, K. Chance, Stratospheric intrusion associated with a cut-off low event over northern China: A case study of a July 2007 event, Advanced in Atmospheric Science, 30(2), 525-540, 2013.

 

2012

 

48. Lal, S., S. Venkataramani, S. Srivastava, S. Gupta, C. Mallik, M. Naja, Y. Acharya, X. Liu, Transport effects on the vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone over the tropical marine regions surrounding India, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50180, 2012.

 

47.  Bak, J.,  J. H. Kim, R. Spurr, X. Liu, and M. J. Newchurch, Sensitivity analysis of ozone retrievals from ultraviolet measurements on geostationary platforms, Remote Sensing of Environment, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.11.010, 2012.

 

46.  Fishman, J., J Al-Saadi, P Bontempi, K Chance, F Chavez, M Chin, P Coble, C Davis, P DiGiacomo, D Edwards, J Goes, J Herman, C Hu, Laura T Iraci, D Jacob, C Jordan, S R Kawa, R Key, X Liu, S Lohrenz, A Mannino, V Natraj, D Neil, J Neu, M Newchurch, K Pickering, J Salisbury, H Sosik, M Tzortziou, J Wang, M Wang, Progress Report on NASA's GEO-CAPE Mission:    Fulfilling the Mandate and Meeting the Challenges of the Nation's Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 1547-1566, 2012, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00201.1. [BAMS]

 

45Nakatani A., S. Kondo, S. Hayashida, T. Nagashima, K. Sudo, X. Liu, K. Chance, I. Hirota, Enhanced Mid-latitude Tropospheric Column Ozone over East Asia Associated with the Subtropical Jet, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 90(2), 207-222, doi: 10.2151/jmsj.2012-204.

 

44. Cai, Z., Y. Liu, X. Liu, K. Chance, C.R. Nowlan, R.  Lang, R. Munro, R. Suleiman, Characterization and Correction of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 Ultraviolet Measurements and Application to Ozone Profile Retrievals, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07305, doi:10.1029/2011JD017096, 2012. [Full text (pdf)]

 

2011

 

43. Sellitto P., B. R. Bojkov, X. Liu, K. Chance and F. Del Frate, Tropospheric ozone column retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of neural networks algorithms, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2375-2388, doi:10.5194/amt-4-2375-2011, 2011. [AMT]

 

42. Nowlan C.R., X. Liu, K. Chance, Z. Cai, T.P. Kurosu, C. Lee, R.V. Martin, Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from GOME-2 using an optimal estimation approach: Algorithm and initial validation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D18301, doi:10.1029/2011JD015808 2011. [Full text (pdf)]

 

41.  Natraj V., X. Liu, S.S. Kulawik, K. Chance, R. Chatfield, D.P. Edwards, A. Eldering, G. Francis, T. Kurosu, K. Pickering, R. Spurr, H. Worden, Multispectral sensitivity studies for the retrieval of tropospheric and lowermost tropospheric ozone from simulated clear sky GEO-CAPE measurements, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7151-7165. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.014, 2011. [Full text (pdf)]

 

40Lahoz, W.A., V.-H. Peuch, J. Orphal, J.-L. Attie, K. Chance, X. Liu, D. Edwards, H. Elbern, J.-M. Flaud, M. Claeyman and L. El Amraoui, Monitoring air quality from space: The case for the geostationary platform, Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00045.1, 2011. [BAMS]

 

39. Su, S., J.H. He, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Cai, X. Liu, Relationships between Low ozone and the Longitudinal Oscillation of the South Asia High over the Tibetan Plateau in Summer, Climatic and Environmental Reseach (Chinese), 16(1), 2011.

 

38. Zoogman, P., D.J. Jacob, K. Chance, L. Zhang, P. Le Sager, A.M. Fiore, A. Eldering, X. Liu, V. Natraj, S.S. Kulawik, Ozone Air Quality Measurement Requirements for a Geostationary Satellite Mission. Atmos. Environ., 45, 7143-7150, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.058, 2011.

 

37. Biazar, A. M. khan , l. wang , Y.H. Park , M.J. Newchurch , D. McNider , X. Liu , D. Byun , R. Cameron, Utilization of Satellite Observation of Ozone and Aerosols in Providing Initial and Boundary Condition for Regional Air Quality Studies, J. Geophys. Res, D18309, doi:10.1029/2010JD015200, 2011.

 

36. Wang, L., M.J. Newchurch, A.P. Biazoor, X. Liu, S. Kuang, M. Khan, Evaluating AURA/OMI ozone profile retrievals using ozonesonde data and EPA surface measurements for August 2006, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5523-5530, 2011.

 

35. Claeyman, M., Attie, J.-L., Peuch, V.-H., El Amraoui, L., Lahoz, W. A., Josse, B., Ricaud, P., von Clarmann, T., Höpfner, M., Orphal, J., Flaud, J.-M., Edwards, D. P., Chance, K., Liu, X., Pasternak, F., and Cantie, R., A geostationary thermal infrared sensor to monitor the lowermost troposphere: O3 and CO retrieval studies, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 297-317, doi:10.5194/amt-4-297-2011, 2011. [AMT]

 

2010

 

34. Salawitch, R. J. et al. (2010), A New Interpretation of Total Column BrO during Arctic Spring, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798, 2010.

 

33. Yang, K., X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, N. A. Krotkov, S. A. Carn, E. J. Hughes, A. J. Krueger, R. J. D. Spurr, and S. G. Trahan, Direct retrieval of sulfur dioxide amount and altitude from spaceborne hyperspectral UV measurements: Theory and application, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00L09, doi:10.1029/2010JD013982, 2010. [Full text (pdf)]

 

32. Walker, T.W., R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, W. R. Leaitch, A.M. MacDonald, K. Anlauf, R. C. Cohen, G. Huey, M. Avery, A. Weinheimer, F. Flocke, D. Tarasick, A. Thompson, D. G. Streets, and X. Liu, Trans-pacific transport of reactive nitrogen and ozone to Canada during spring, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8353-8372, doi:10.5194/acp-10-8353-2010, 2010. [ACP]

 

31. Zhang, L., D.J. Jacob, X. Liu, J.A. Logan, K. Chance, A. Eldering, and B.R. Bojkov, Intercomparison methods for satellite measurements of atmospheric composition: application to tropospheric ozone from TES and OMI, Atmos. Chem Phys., 10, 4725-4739, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4725-2010, 2010. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

30. Liu, X., P. K. Bhartia, K. Chance, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, Ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2521-2537, 2010. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

29. Liu, X., P. K. Bhartia, K. Chance, L. Froidevaux, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, Validation of OMI ozone profiles and stratospheric ozone columns with Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2539-2549, 2010. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

28. Tarasick, D. W., J. J. Jin, V. E. Fioletov, G. Liu, A. M. Thompson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Liu, C. E. Sioris, X. Liu, O. R. Cooper, T. Dann, and V. Thouret , High-resolution tropospheric ozone fields for INTEX and ARCTAS from IONS ozonesondes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20301, doi:10.1029/2009JD012918, 2010.

 

27. Liu, C., Y. Liu, Z. Cai, S. Gao, J. Bian, X. Liu, and Kelly Chance, Dynamic formation of extreme ozone minimum events over the Tibetan Plateau during northern winters 1987-2001, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18311, doi:10.1029/2009JD013130, 2010.

 

2009

 

26. Pittman, J.V., L.L. Pan, J.C. Wei, F.W. Irion, X. Liu, E.S. Maddy, C.D. Barnet, K. Chance, R.S. Gao, Evaluation of AIRS, IASI, and OMI ozone profile retrievals in the extratropical tropopause region using in situ aircraft measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D24109, doi:10.1029/2009JD012493, 2009.

 

25. Yang, K., X. Liu, N.A. Krotkov, A.J. Krueger, S.A. Carn, Estimating the altitude of volcanic sulfur dioxide plumes from space borne hyper-spectral UV measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10803, doi:10.1029/2009GL038025, 2009. [Full text (pdf)]

 

24. Liu, Y., Y. Wang, X. Liu, Cai, Z., and K. Chance, Tibetan middle tropospheric ozone minimum in June discovered from GOME, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05814, doi:10.1029/2008GL037056, 2009. [Full text (pdf)]

 

23. Cai, Z., Y. Wang, X. Liu, X. Zheng, K. Chance, Y. Liu, Validation of GOME ozone profiles and tropospheric column ozone with ozonesonde over China, Chinese J. Appl. Meteorol., 20 (3), 337-345, 2009.

 

2008

 

22. Hayashida, S., N. Urita, K.Noguchi, X. Liu, and K.Chance, Spatiotemporal variation in tropospheric column ozone over East Asia observed by GOME and ozonesondes, Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere, 4, 117-120, doi:10.2151/sola.2008-030.

 

21. Kaminski, J.K., L. Neary, J. Struzewska, J. C. McConnell, A. Lupu, J. Jarosz, K. Toyota, S. L. Gong, J. Côte, X. Liu, K. Chance, and A. Richter, GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3255-3281, 2008. [ACP]

 

2007

 

20. Saiz-Lopez, A., K. Chance, X. Liu, T.P. Kurosu and S.P. Sander, First observations of iodine oxide from space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(12), L12812, doi:10.1029/2007GL030111, 2007. [Full text (pdf)] 

 

19. Liu, X., K. Chance, C.E. Sioris, and T.P Kurosu, Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3571-3578, 2007. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

18. Noguch, K., N. Urita, S. Hayashida, X. Liu, and K. Chance, Validation and comparison of tropospheric column ozone derived from satellite measurements over Japan, Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere, 3, 041-044, doi:10.2151/sola.2007-011, 2007.

 

17. Liu, X., K. Chance, T.P. Kurosu, Improved ozone profile retrievals from GOME data with degradation correction in reflectance, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1575-1583, 2007. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

16. Sauvage, B., R.V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, X. Liu, L. Jaegle,  P.I. Palmer, and K. Chance, Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 815-838, 2007. [ACP]

 

15. Worden, J., X. Liu, K. Bowman, K. Chance, R. Beer, A. Eldering, M. Gunson, H. Worden, Improved tropospheric ozone profile retrievals using OMI and TES radiances, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(1), L01809, 10.1029/2006GL027806, 2007. [Full text (pdf)]

 

2006

 

14. Meijer,Y. J., D. P. J. Swart, R. J. van der A, F. Baier, P. K. Bhartia, G. E. Bodeker, K. Chance, T. Erbertseder, L. E. Flynn, F. del Frate, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Hansen, O. P. Hasekamp, A. Kaifel, H. M. Kelder, B. J. Kerridge, J.-C. Lambert, J. Landgraf, X. Liu, I. S. McDermid, M. D. Muller, R. F. van Oss, Y. Pachepsky, V. Rozanov, R. Siddans, S. Tellmann, M. Weber, and C. Zehner, Evaluation of nine different GOME ozone profile algorithms, J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D21), D21306, 10.1029/2005JD006778, 2006.

 

13. Sioris, C.E., L.J. Kovalenko, C.A. McLinden, R.J. Salawitch, M.Van Roozendael, F. Goutail, M. Dorf, K. Pfeilsticker, K. Chance, C. von Savigny, X. Liu, J.P. Pommereau, and J. Frerick, Latitudinal and vertical distribution of bromine monoxide and inorganic BrO in the lower stratosphere from SCIAMACHY limb scatter measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D14), D14301, 10.1029/2005JD006479, 2006.

 

12. Liu, X.,  K. Chance, C.E. Sioris, T.P. Kurosu, M.J. Newchurch, Intercomparison of GOME, ozonesonde, and SAGE-II measurements of ozone: Demonstration of the need to homogenize available ozonesonde datasets, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D14), D114305,10.1029/2005JD006718, 2006 [Full text (pdf)]

 

11. Liu, X., K. Chance, C.E. Sioris, M.J. Newchurch, T.P. Kurosu, Tropospheric ozone profiles from a ground-based ultraviolet spectrometer: a new retrieval method, Appl. Opt., 45(10), 2352-2359, 2006. [Full text (pdf)]

 

10. Liu X., K. Chance,  C.E. Sioris, T.P. Kurosu, R.J.D. Spurr, R.V. Martin, M. Fu, J.A. Logan, D.J. Jacob, P.I. Palmer, M.J. Newchurch, I. Megretskaia, R. Chatfield, First directly-retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone: comparison with the GOES-CHEM model,  J. Geophys. Res., 111(D2), D02308, 10.1029/2005JD006564, 2006. [Full text (pdf)

 

2005

 

 9. Liu, X., K. Chance, C.E. Sioris, R.J.D. Spurr, T.P. Kurosu, R.V. Martin, M.J. Newchurch, Ozone Profile and Tropospheric Ozone Retrieval from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Algorithm Description and Validation, J. Geophys. Res., 110(D20), D20307, 10.1029/2005 JD006240, 2005. [Full text (pdf)]

 

 8. Liu, X., C.E. Sioris, K.V. Chance, T.P. Kurosu, M.J. Newchurch, R.V. Martin, P.I. Palmer, Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/Visible spectrometer, App. Opt., 44(16), 3312-3319, 2005. [Full text (pdf)]

 

2004

 

 7. Liu, X., M.J. Newchurch, R. Loughman, and P.K. Bhartia, Errors resulting from Assuming Opaque Lambertian Cloud Surfaces in TOMS Ozone Retrieval, J. Quant. Spectro. & Radiat. Transfer, 85, 337-365, 2004. [Full text (pdf)]

 

2003

 

 6. Liu, X., J. Wang, and S.A. Christopher, Shortwave direct radiative forcing of dust aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 24, 5147-5160, 2003. [Full text (pdf)]

 

5. Liu, X., M.J. Newchurch, and J.H. Kim, Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS data, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 3, 1113-1129, 2003. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

4. Wang, J., X. Liu, S.A. Christopher, J.S. Reid, E. Reid, and H. Maring, The Effect of Non-Sphericity on GOES-8 Dust Aerosol Retrievals during PRIDE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(24), 229310.1029/2003GL018697, 2003. [Full text (pdf)]

 

3. Newchurch, M.J., D. Sun, J.H. Kim, X. Liu, Tropical tropospheric ozone derived using Clear-Cloudy Pairs (CCP) of TOMS measurements, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 3, 683-695, 2003. [Full text (pdf)] [ACP]

 

2001

 

2. Newchurch, M.J., X. Liu, J.H. Kim, and P.K. Bhartia, On the accuracy of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer retrievals over tropical cloudy regions, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32,315-3227, 2001. [Full text (pdf)]

 

1. Newchurch, M.J., X. Liu, and J.H. Kim, Lower tropospheric ozone derived from TOMS near mountainous regions, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23,403-20,412, 2001. [Full text (pdf)]

 

Thesis

Liu, X., Ozone retrieval errors associated with clouds in Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 2002. [Full text (pdf)]